The pen is a piece of metal shaped generally semi-cylindrical and tapered at its distal end. It comprises a base, a body, two nozzles separated by a slot, a tip and often a vent at the proximal end of the slot. It is of variable thickness and size, but generally similar shape. There are, however truly tubular feathers (Dupont Montparnasse) or triangular and flat (Parker 180). The tip is generally fitted with an iridium ball that overcomes the sensitivity of the gold to the abrasion exerted by the paper. The visible face of the pen is usually etched logo of the manufacturer and the punch if it is of precious metal, as well as decorative motifs. It may be gold-plated if it is made of steel or metal alloy, plated or palladium, iridium or ruthenium if it is gold. The pen is placed on a pipe that brings him ink cartridge or reservoir by capillary action game. This is the same physical phenomenon that will be filed on paper.Pen and leads are inserted into the block section or pen.
Types of peaks
The tip of the pen is cut so as to provide types of writing tailored to the user's wishes. The most common are "fine", "medium" or "large", as symbolized by the letters F, M or B ("broad" meaning "wide" in English). However, many manufacturers offer other variants, each corresponding to a different line. In practice, the available range covers the extra fine to extra large sizes, or EF BBB. There are also so-called oblique feathers, whose tip is bevelled to effect a full and loose, "stub", the truncated tip allows for broad strokes down and pulling purposes; Left oblique, the reverse, music, double slot for more effects thick and thin strokes, special, double or triple blade bevel, etc. If we add that the oblique may have different widths, OM, OB or OBB, some manufacturers offer up to 20 references.Of course, retailers rarely have the whole range, but they will be having you control the pen of your dreams. In practice, only a test will allow you to find "your" pen.
Gold quickly became for the manufacture of quality feather, given its physical characteristics include: corrosion resistance and flexibility of ink writing. Given the low wear resistance of the gold used on the feather quality is welded at its end a ball of iridium, much harder than white gold precious metal. Thus, the pen maintains flexibility qualities of gold while avoiding the disadvantages associated with sensitivity to the abrasion exerted by the paper during writing. The gold used for the manufacture of ballpoint pens is almost never pure gold, but an alloy of several metals in varying proportions. The color of gold will depend on the particular composition of this alloy: it will be red, pink, yellow, green or white.
Titration, that is to say the amount of gold over other metals present in the alloy is expressed in carats or decimals. In France, the golden feathers have long titled 18K (ie 750/1000 pure gold) because of the regulations in this country. European standards have reduced this titration "minimal" to 14 carats (or 585/1000 pure gold). Some manufacturers, including Japanese, offer pens with a pen 21 carat pure gold close (24 carats or 990/1000). The composition of the gold alloy can have an impact on the flexibility of the pen, but the thickness of the metal sheet and the nature of the metal used is decisive. It is simplistic and even wrong to say that the pen 18K are more flexible than 14k feathers. Similarly, it is wrong to claim that this is the assay that determines the smoothness of the pen on the paper: the quality of polishing the tip of iridium is decisive.
The gold is not the only metal used in the manufacture of feather, and thus is rare feathers palladium (up to 23 carats), more often feathers steel or metal alloy composition varied . It should be noted that the feathers in modern steel used by large houses are of excellent quality and that their writing characteristics compare favorably with the best gold nibs. In addition, a careful use will not expose more to the corrosion than their counterparts in gold. Of the few manufacturers have used platinum, including French jeweler Lefebvre, who has dressed many pens precious metal and replaced the original gold nib with platinum. They are stamped PL. The 1960s saw the emergence of feathers titanium (Parker T1) and the supply of such feathers has grown in recent months. It should be noted that titanium gives the pen of flexibility, often missing from modern pens quality.
The indispensable accessories: leads and ink
The pipe, resin or better Ebonite feeds pen ink.It is adapted to the size of the pen, which must be perfectly positioned thereon. If the pen is moved slightly, the tooth will no longer aligned, it will follow "hiccups" in writing and ink flow problems or even feeling "scratchy pen." It is not always easy to put it in place without the help of a professional. Similarly, a feather on which we have relied too much will tend to lead away from the pressure and it might disrupt the flow of ink. These excessive pressures account for 90% of the problems in the ink flow in the act of signing! The ink must be adapted to the use of fountain pens. We outlaw the ink, the ink has been stored too long, or whose pigments are too thick. Try different types of ink, different brands to find one that best suits your pen and your taste. Do not feel necessarily bound by the manufacturer's brand of your pen!
Flexibility, a dream?
Modern birds are often quite rigid.Sweet on paper, but without flexibility! These feathers adapted to hands that are formed on pens, do not deform under pressure and deliver a steady flow of ink. However they prevent any hint of calligraphy, except to opt for an oblique pen mentioned above. There remains some manufacturers offer flexible feathers or "soft", including, but are not limited to, Pelikan, whose pen M1000 is noteworthy in this regard; Pilot, which has a range called flexible; Or Stipula Visconti, equipping some pens feather titanium great flexibility, etc.
Smoothness? A need!
We all need sweetness in this world ...! It is this strong belief that manufacturers attach great importance to polishing the tip of iridium. Some are excellent and manage to offer inflexible feathers (see above), but infinitely sweet on paper. Take your time to test this aspect carefully before buying your pen. The pen will be more flexibility and smooth after regular use.The flow is also likely to become more important in light of this increased flexibility. If you like a nice little pen, we must try to change the paper: some papers are more like emery cloth as a writing medium valid!
Aesthetics? A matter of taste!
If more houses are for the German company to obtain Bock feathers with their pens are equipped with a number of manufacturers always realize themselves their own. Even produced by Bock, feathers are personalized and show the brand of the pen, indicating the titration karats or decimals, as well as an indication of the characteristic writing. Modern birds are either monochrome, yellow or white gold or palladium plate or bicolor. Some are plated black PVD, a recent trend. Regarding the size of the feathers, it varies considerably. From the beginning of the twentieth century, the major broadcast Waterman such a wide variety of feather size, size # 1, tiny, size # 10, colossal.We also know that it is huge and ornate 149 Montblanc pen that has largely built its reputation. Small feathers, moreover canopy builds, have also had their moments of glory, with the famous Parker 51 if taken after the Second World War. Your pen will accompany you for a long time, as long as you do not are planning on the ground, the first peak and that you regularly rinciez and tank and pipe sucking deionized water and then emptying or for pens cartridge, immersing the time of night, the entire block pen in a glass of cold water ... The pen remains a precision instrument. An imperfect alignment of the slats, the loss of the tip of iridium or wrong about the pipe will cause much disruption to its operation. Do not straighten yourself a twisted feather: specialists are there.